This is a series of articles dealing with the British nobility beginning with William the Conqueror in 1066 and ending with Henry VIII circa 1530. The information within has been compiled from multiple resources and a bibliography will follow the completed work. Beginning with the Normans, the Plantagenets, the Lancasters, the Yorks, and then finally, the Tudors.
Richard I: Third born son on Henry II, Richard "the lionhearted" (Coeur de lion) is so-called for his famed bravery and courage in battle. He married Princess Berengaria but he did very little to hide the fact that he was gay. Although King for 10 years, he was only in the country of England for 7 months. Richard sold off church and state holdings as well as selling charters to English towns which guaranteed greater freedom and self-government and autonomy.
This helped to raise much-needed money for his crusades. Richard I, along with King Phillip II of France, and Frederick I of Germany set off together on crusade, however, Frederick I drowned before reaching the Holy Land and the obvious animosity between Richard and Phillip prompted Phillip to return to France before the Crusade got under way. While on crusade, William Longchamp was chancellor, but that title was soon wrested from him by Richard's brother John. Richard's expensive crusades won the safe passage of Christians through to Jerusalem but he was captured and ransomed while on his way home. England scraped up the ransom and Richard was released, but soon after, left for France, where he was mortally wounded in battle at Chalus. Richard had essentially used England as a revenue source and it is rumored that he actually said, “by God’s feet, find me a purchaser and I will sell London itself!” There were nine crusades in all and in the end, the Muslims kept control of the Holy Land.